K2VITAL™   |   Vitamin K in its natural form   |

K2VITAL™ is the only available Vitamin K product solely consisting of the most bioavailable form of the K Vitamins: all-trans Vitamin K2 MK-7.

Since Vitamin K2 as MK-7 from Kappa Bioscience is not made by fermentation and because strict control is applied for all materials used in the production process, it is guaranteed that K2VITAL™ products do not contain soy proteins, which may cause allergies or severe intolerances.

Kappa Bioscience offers K2VITAL™ products to the Food and Dietary Supplement market in standard formulations and concentrations at outstanding competitive prices.

Tailor made products from 100% pure molecule to concentrations of 0.1% are available as powder and oil form.

Our contribution to the market is a pure, stable and guaranteed biological active Vitamin K2 as MK-7.

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Vitamin K2 MK7 will change

Calcium supplementation forever

K2VITAL™   |   Key to Optimal Bone Health  |

Vitamin K2 acts as a co-factor necessary for activation of osteocalcin, which facilitates binding of Calcium to bones. When activated, osteocalcin enables Calcium to be incorporated into the bone matrix (hydroxyapatite) and thereby build new bone.

The active compound in K2VITAL is Vitamin K2 in its natural form, the most efficient form of Vitamin K; MK-7. Vitamin K2 is tested in numerous clinical trials and K2VITAL is documented as safe.

Bones are a living substance, constantly renewed

The skeleton is built up by bone (hydroxyapatite) supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. Calcium is an important building block in the bone matrix. There are constantly bone building processes ongoing and the entire skeleton is replaced every seven years. Build-up cells (osteoblasts) and breakdown cells (osteoclasts) regulate the strength of bones. When breakdown cell activity dominates, the skeleton becomes fragile and this may result in development of osteoporosis. Post-menopausal women are particularly at risk for development of brittle bones, leading to fractures. Worldwide, lifetime risk of osteoporotic fractures in women and men is 30-50% and 15-30%, respectively (International Osteoporosis Foundation).








The importance of combining Vitamin K2, Vitamin D3 and Calcium

The most widely used supplements to support bone health are Calcium and Vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 increases the intestinal uptake of Calcium; the most important bone-building- mineral. Vitamin D3 also induces the synthesis of osteocalcin, which is responsible for incorporation of Calcium into the bone matrix. Osteocalcin however, is dependent on activation by Vitamin K before it can react with Calcium and build bone. Individuals with low Vitamin K2 intake have a large fraction of non-activated osteocalcin, resulting in reduced capacity for Calcium binding. To secure an optimal bone building process, Vitamin K2, Vitamin D3 and Calcium must work in combination.

Vitamin K2 and effects on bone health

Clinical studies focusing on parameters important for bone health are long-term studies involving computerized scanning analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and bone strength as well as scores for bone fractures (hip, arm, vertebra). Several studies have demonstrated favorable bone health effect of Vitamin K2, especially with respect to bone strength and reduced incidences of bone fractures. Most studies have been carried out with high doses (drug doses) of the Vitamin K2 as MK-4. Studies on effects of Vitamin K2 as MK-7 are mainly based on intake of Natto (the traditionally dish in Japan based on fermented soybeans) in Japan. Natto has a high content of MK-7 and people eating natto has lower incidence of fractures.

A good surrogate marker for effects of Vitamin K2 is the activation level of osteocalcin. Many investigations have revealed that the western populations in general are Vitamin K2 deficient implying that their osteocalcin is not maximally activated. Studies have shown that supplementation with adequate doses of Vitamin K2 will fully restore activated osteocalcin. This is a prerequisite for improved bone health.

Some studies demonstrating the importance of Vitamin K2 related to fractures and bone quality are summarized below. These trials show that low serum levels of Vitamin K2 are found in people with fractures compared to matched controls. Furthermore, high intake of MK7 (Natto) is associated with higher BMD and lower frequency of fractures.

K2VITAL™   |   Key to Optimal Balance of Calcium in the Body   |

Calcium is carefully regulated in the body by the means of certain proteins. Vitamin K2 is responsible for activation of these proteins; osteocalcin which ties Calcium to the bone structure and matrix Gla-protein (MGP) which ties up Calcium in the blood vessels. The Western population is prone to be deficient in Vitamin K2. The Vitamin should thus be taken daily to support optimal use of Calcium in bone building processes and to prevent calcification of vessels.

The active compound in K2VITAL is Vitamin K2 in its natural form, the most efficient form of Vitamin K; MK-7. Vitamin K2 is tested in numerous clinical trials and K2VITAL is documented as safe.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K belongs to the fat soluble Vitamins (Vitamins A, D, E, K). Vitamin K is an important group of micronutrients essential for the functioning of several proteins (co-factor) involved in a.o. blood clotting, bone metabolism and inhibi tion of calcified vessels.

The importance of choosing the right Vitamin K2

The Vitamin K group consists of Vitamin K1 and the Vitamin K2 family. The differences among the various K Vitamins lie in the side chains, properties of which influence intestinal uptake and sites of action in the body. Vitamin K1 is transported to the liver and is primarily involved in blood clotting, while the prime function of Vitamin K2 is the activation of the bone protein osteocalcin and the Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) located in cartilage and vascular smooth muscle cells. Osteocalcin is responsible for incorporation of Calcium into bones whereas MGP binds Calcium and prevents deposits of Calcium in the vessel wall.

Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) has the best bioavailability of all K-Vitamins and has a serum half life of up to 72 hours, compared to MK-4 and Vitamin K1 with only 1-2 hour half lives. For maximum effect, MK-7 is thus the optimal source of Vitamin K.

Clinical importance to the skeletal and cardiovascular systems:

Activates proteins which ties Calcium to the bone structure and prevents thereby osteoporosis

Activates proteins tying up Calcium in the blood vessels and thereby prevents

arterial calcification

New research and studies indicates several more applications in the body (i.e. inhibits inflammation)

K2VITAL™   |   Vitamin K2 is Superior to Vitamin K1   |

Vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is the Vitamin K of choice for maintaining optimal bone strength and healthy blood vessels. Vitamin K2 as MK-7 even in low concentrations is far more effective in the body than Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2 as MK-4.

The active compound in K2VITAL is Vitamin K2 in its natural form, the most efficient form of Vitamin K; MK-7. Vitamin K2 is tested in numerous clinical trials and K2VITAL is documented as safe.

Vitamin K2- Menaquinone

Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is the “new” way to supply the need for Vitamin K. It has the longest serum half life of all K-Vitamins, 72 hours1. It is sufficient with a once daily dose of MK-7.

Menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is the Vitamin K2 known from Japanese studies on bone health. In the Japanese studies doses of 45 mg/day MK-4 (administered 3X pr day) have been used to observe effects on bone health. MK-4 has a short serum half life of only 1.5 hours and must be administered several times daily in mg quantities to obtain the same effects on bone metabolism as MK-72. A daily dose of 45 mg MK-4 is recommended for treatment of osteoporosis (used as a drug). The dose is 500 - 1000 times higher than the once daily dose recommended for MK-73.

Vitamin K1 - Phylloquinone

Vitamin K1 is the “old” way to supply Vitamin K. Vitamin K1 must, due to a serum half life of only 1.5 hours, be administered several times daily to obtain the same concentration in blood as Vitamin K2 (MK-7)1.

The present dose recommendation for K1 is based on effects on the coagulation system. No recommendation is available on K1 for bone or cardiovascular health4. Studies show that very large doses of Vitamin K1 are required to obtain maximal activation of the Calcium-binding protein osteocalcin in bones. Dosages must at least be in the range of 1000 mcg/day to obtain this effect5 . This far excceeds the doses recommeded as food supplement doses for Vitamins.

Vitamin K1 has no or little effect on heart health and vessel calcification3,6,7.

Vitamin K2 and effects on bone health

Clinical studies focusing on parameters important for bone health are long-term studies involving computerized scanning analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and bone strength as well as scores for bone fractures (hip, arm, vertebra). Several studies have demonstrated favorable bone health effect of Vitamin K2, especially with respect to bone strength and reduced incidences of bone fractures. Most studies have been carried out with high doses (drug doses) of the Vitamin K2 as MK-4. Studies on effects of Vitamin K2 as MK-7 are mainly based on intake of Natto (the traditionally dish in Japan based on fermented soybeans) in Japan. Natto has a high content of MK-7 and people eating natto has lower incidence of fractures.

A good surrogate marker for effects of Vitamin K2 is the activation level of osteocalcin. Many investigations have revealed that the western populations in general are Vitamin K2 deficient implying that their osteocalcin is not maximally activated. Studies have shown that supplementation with adequate doses of Vitamin K2 will fully restore activated osteocalcin. This is a prerequisite for improved bone health.

Some studies demonstrating the importance of Vitamin K2 related to fractures and bone quality are summarized below. These trials show that low serum levels of Vitamin K2 are found in people with fractures compared to matched controls. Furthermore, high intake of MK7 (Natto) is associated with higher BMD and lower frequency of fractures.

Vitamin K & Bone Health

After 30 years of age, bone mass is decreasing in both men and women. This implies that Calcium supplement is especially important in the childhood/puberty and from the age of 30-35 and onwards.

Very high doses of Vitamin K2 as MK-4 and Vitamin K1 are needed in order to demonstrate effects on bone strength in postmenopausal women3. Much lower amount of MK-7 was sufficient to improve bone strength8.

Vitamin K and Heart Health

High food intake of Vitamin K2 is shown to be effective in preventing vessel calcification; the Rotterdam study6. Risk reduction of cardiovascular disease is related to MK-7; not to MK-4, as shown in a study involving 16057 women7. The study measured intake of a mixture of menaquinones, incl. MK-4 and MK-7 based on food intake.

Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) did not show any effect on vessel calcification6,7.

K2VITAL™   |   When Quality Matters   |

Assessing ingredient quality is an important step when selecting the most suitable ingredients to be used in consumer formulations. Ensuring the right quality-price ratio can ensure the correct positioning of ingredients on offer.

Quantitative assessment of VK2 MK-7

Pricing of Vitamin K2 MK-7 is based on the quantitative & qualitative amount of pure Vitamin K2 (MK-7) claimed in the product description. This is best analysed by HPLC method using a C18 reversed phase column. This will determine the net content of the various menaquinones (MK). Fermentation produced Vitamin K2 MK-7 invariably has MK’s other than MK-7. On the contrary, K2VITAL, produced through organic synthesis, only contains Vitamin K2 MK-7:

Quantitative assessment of isomeric (cis/trans) purity of MK-7

Another often overlooked or not well understood aspect during evaluation of various MK-7’s is the quantification of the cis/trans content of the ingredient. Indeed, as well as being quantitative, it is a qualitative indication of the Vitamin K2 MK-7. Only the trans form of the MK-7 is biologically active, while the cis component has no biological activity and as such, should be disregarded in the total Vitamin K2 MK-7 content. Traditionally, in fermentation produced material, both cis & trans are included in the total Vitamin K2 MK-7 content, leading to a wrong conclusion. Since functionality can only be expected from the all-trans content, the consumer could be misled. A high content of all-trans MK-7 indicates a higher quality. K2VITAL has an all-trans configuration in Vitamin K2 MK-7 as the below chromatogram highlights.

The above example of a fermentation produced material shows a cis content of approximately 80%. As a result, the active component represents only 20%, hence a 5x “overdosing” is needed to achieve the same level of trans MK-7 content as is present in K2VITAL. In the context of label claims, the cis-isomers are unwanted impurities.

Free from...

Allergens are a serious concern and may impact labelling. Products produced by fermentation mostly use a soy-based raw material. This may require soy to be listed as an allergen. K2VITAL is free from all known allergens. Further, it does not contain residual solvents, metals or microbial contaminants.

Published Safety Data

Consumer safety is our utmost concern. It is with that in mind, K2VITAL underwent a stringent safety assessment.

K2VITAL is the only Vitamin K2 MK-7 with published safety data, ensuring peace of mind for manufacturers and consumers alike .

Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of synthetic K2VITAL were conducted according to OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals:



K2VITAL™   |   About   |

Kappa Bioscience A/S, a Norwegian entity, is the innovative leader and first mover with its patent protected high purity, all-trans Vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Driven by their core vision to make Vitamin K2 MK-7 available for everyone, they own and manage the whole value chain - from production to sales. Kappa Bioscience has substantial resources and knowledge about vitamins and Vitamin K2 in particular. They deliver their Vitamin K2, branded as K2VITAL on various commercially suitable carriers, such as MCC, MCT & Dextrate.

ppm.Ingredients is the exclusive sales agent of Kappa Bioscience A/S in food and dietary markets in Austria, Germany, Poland and Switzerland.

K2VITAL- The Vitamin of tomorrow... today.

K2VITAL- Putting Calcium to work.


For more information please visit

Kappa Bioscience AS

www.kappabio.com

www.k2vital.com

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